The Revolutionary life of Bangladesh’s Architect and Father of the nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman for the liberation of the Bengali nation. (17th March 1920 – 15th August 1975)Ó
v Hazrat Shaikh Awal came to Chittagong of Bangladesh from the distant Baghdad in the early part of the eighteenth century to spread Islam, whose descendent Sheikh Abdul Hamid’s nephew, Sheikh Lutfor Rahman’s son Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was born in the Sheikh House at 8 pm, Tuesday of 17th March 1920 AD, Bangla: 20 Cchaitra 1327, in the land of Bengal.
v His parents gave him the nickname ‘Khoka’.
v The childhood of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman passed in the Tungipara village.
v His society and environment taught him to protest against injustice from childhood
v Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was the first born son of his parents.
v He was lean on food, and had a mostly vegetarian diet
v He loved figs, raw bananas and fish.
v Koi, shing and shrimp were his favourite fish.
v The compulsory education of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman started at home with the hands of scholar Sakhayatullah
v Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was admitted to Tungipara’s Dimadanga and Tungipara Primary School.
v He studied upto Class 3 in Dimadanga Primary School.
v At the age of 10, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was married to his three-year cousin, Fazilatunnesa. And in 1939 formal marriage was completed and in 1942, the flower arrangement was done.
v In 1934, when he was studying in class 7, he was affected by the berry disease
v In 1936, his father was transferred to Madaripur as Seeststadt. He was admitted to Madaripur High School in Class 7.v In 1936, he was affected by a disease named Glaucoma.
v From 1936, he started wearing spectacles.
v In 1937, he was admitted to Gopalganj Mission School in Class 7.
v Sheikh Mujib was particularly influenced by his tutor Abdul Hamid Master in the 30’s.
v Sheikh Mujib recieved his first ideas about politics from Abdul Hamid Master
v After hearing the revolutionary tales of the anti-British armed movement and the Indian independence movement from Abdul Hamid Master, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was inspired to participate in politics.
v Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was very much against caste and communalism since his childhood.
v He persistently entered the Mission school and sat on the front bench. Although it was difficult to sit at the front benches in the Mission school for the Muslims
v History was his favourite subject.
v His favourite sports were football and volleyball. He was really active and fearless.
v In his school life, he played for the Gopalganj Wanderers football team.
v The students of the school affectionately called him ‘Mujib bhai’.
v His leadership skills started to develop in his school life.
v Once, there was a famine in Tungipara. Watching the people suffering, Sheikh Mujib gave away the rice from his own house to the poor people. Coming home, his father was impressed by his son’s humane side. Instead of scolding him, he praised him.
v At the age of 18, he experienced his first jail sentence.
v He studied Class 9 through 10 from 1939 to 1940. He passed his entrance exams in 1942 with second division. From one side, he was over aged while he was admitted to school, on another, he missed 3 years of his studies due to the berry disease.
v He passed his entrance exams at the age of 22.
v Once, A.K Fazlul Haq and Hussein Shahid Suhrawardy came to visit Gopalganj Public Hall. Before their departure, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman stood infront of them. He demanded that the student residence be reconstructed. Fazlul Haq granted 1200 taka for rebuilding the school. This was the first meeting of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman with these two great leaders of Bengal.
v In March 1938, there was a Hindu-Muslim dispute in Gopalganj. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman’s classmate, Abdul Malek, beat up the house of Hindu Mahasabha president Surendra Banerjee. Sheikh Mujib went to rescue Malki with his group students. Rampad saw Sheikh Mujib and hit him with a stick. Sheikh Mujib broke the head of the ramapas and took away Malik. At night, Congress leaders Khandker Shamsul Haque Moktar Sheikh Mujib, filed a criminal case against Malek, asking all of them to the police station and later to jail. The decision to withdraw the case was decided by the two parties – compensation would be 15 rupees, 10 days after all got bail, “This is the first prison in my life.”
v When he was a Class 9 student, School teacher Roshanjan Sengupta used to teach him at home. One day, while returning home, he saw a shirtless boy shivering in the cold. Sheikh Mujib gave him his own shirt, and returned home wearing just a quilt.
v “The buildings of our home will be more than 200 years old.”
v It was only one of the English schools in our region during this period, later it was high school, it still has it today. I went to my father studying in this school till class III and got admitted to Gopalganj Public School in the fourth grade. My mother’s name was Sairera Khatun, she never lived in town with my father.
v In 1942, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was admitted to IA class in Calcutta Islamia College. He used to stay in the unemployed hostel.
v He took the bratachari training initiated by Gurusaday Datta. He used to dance and sing brotchari with students and neighbors in school. His voice would have been sung
“And the soil of Bangladesh, I will keep you tidy”
Formation of Muslim Chhatra League:
- In 1944, in the present dat Kushtia of Bangladesh, Nikhil Bangla Muslim Students’ Student League coference held.
- In the meeting held on 4 January 1948 under the chairmanship of Professor Nazrul Karim in the Fazlul Huq Memorium Conference, the decision was taken to establish East Pakistan Muslim Chattra League, through which he was established as one of the main student leaders of that region.
Awami League’s birth:
- On April 24, 1949, the then government arrested Sheikh Mujibur Rahman for being anti-government and he was released before July 27.
- In 1953 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was elected as the general secretary of East Pakistan Awami Muslim League and he remained in that post till 1966.
- In 1966, he became president of the party.
- In the year 1966, the word ‘Muslim’ was excluded from the name of the party at Mujib’s initiative, to give the party a secular character
- The secular vision of politics that he saw after 1947 was realized here.
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman arrested:
- After the public meeting in Armanitola on October 11, 1949, the procession led by Maulana Bhasani, Shamsul Haq and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was attacked by the police in Nazira Bazar. Later, he came to Dhaka from Delhi through Khulna and police arrested him and sent him to Dhaka jail.
Life in Prison:
- On 19th December 1950, the Home Ministry ordered to send him from Faridpur jail to Khulna Jail. He was sent to Gopalganj jail several times from Khulna and Faridpur Jail for harassment, torture and mentally weakening him.
- On 30 August 1951, he was handed over to the Dhaka Central Jail.
- On 29 January 1952, From Dhaka Medical College Hospital, he was sent to the Central Jail and on 27 February 1952, the government released Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on unconditional terms.
1952 Language Movement and Sheikh Mujib:
- On February 23, 1948, Pakistani Prime Minister Khwaja Nazimuddin said in the session of the People’s Assembly that Urdu would be the only state language in Pakistan. This commentary created an adverse reaction to the whole of East Pakistan.
- On March 2, 1948, Fazlul Haq of Dhaka University organized a conference with leaders of different political parties. In this conference, discussions about the movement against the Muslim League were discussed so that Sheikh Mujib presented a proposal.
- The strike was celebrated in Dhaka on March 11, 1948, in the call of this council. During the strike, some other political activists including Sheikh Mujibur Rahman were arrested in front of the secretariat building.
- In the face of strong protest of the student community, Sheikh Mujib and other student leaders were released on March 15.
- He was arrested on 11 September 1948.
- On 21 January 1949, Sheikh Mujib was released from jail.
- After the formation of East Pakistan Awami Muslim League by Suhrawardy and Maulana Bhasani on June 23, Sheikh Mujib left the Muslim League and joined the new team.
- In early January 1950, Awami Muslim League brought out anti-election procession in Dhaka on the occasion of Pakistan Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan’s arrival in East Pakistan.
- On January 26, 1952, Khwaja Nazimuddin announced that Urdu would be the only state language of Pakistan.
- It was decided to observe February 21 as a day of state language demand. At the same time Sheikh Mujib decided to observe the fast on February 14 from jail. His fasting was effective 13 days. On February 26, he was released from jail.
United Front Election:
- On July 9, 1953, he was elected the Secretary General of the party at the end of the Council of the East Pakistan Awami League.
- The General Election was held on 10 March 1954.
- On 5 June 1955, Sheikh Mujib was nominated a member of the Legislative Council. On 17 June, Awami League presented 21-point demand at a conference organized at Paltan Maidan, among which East Pakistan autonomy was included.
- In the special session of Bangladesh Awami Muslim League on October 21, the word “Muslim” was unanimously removed from the name of the party. Sheikh Mujib was again elected the secretary general of the party.
- He resigned from the cabinet on May 30, 1957 in order to spend the full time for the party.
- On October 7, 1958, Pakistan’s President Major General Iskander Mirza and army chief Ayub Khan banned all political activities by issuing martial law in the country.
The chief leader of East Pakistan:
- He was released from prison in 1961 by filing a writ petition in the High Court. This started secret political activity.
- On 6 February 1962, he was again detained under Public Security Act. On June 2, after the removal of the four-year-old Marshall Law, he was released on the same month 18. In 1963, he went to London to discuss with Suhrawardy, where he was under medical treatment.
- After the death of Suhrawardy on 5 December 1963, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was appointed as general secretary of the Awami League.
Election of 1965:
- The elections of the National Assembly were held on 21 March 1965.
- The Executive Committee of East Pakistan Awami League was formed on 20 March 1966 by the chairmanship of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
- He was arrested at the end of the public meeting on 6th May, 1966 and on 7th June, the strike called for the release of all the prisoners in East Pakistan.
- A national conference of opposition parties was held on 5 February 1966 in Lahore.
- On March 1st, Sheikh Mujib was elected the Awami League president. After this election, he conducted nation-wide operations to gain support for the six point movement.
- On May 8th that year, he was arrested again in Narayanganj for participating in a rally of the workers of the jute factory. A nationwide strike was held on 7 June for his release. Police fired during this strike, which led to the death of three people in Dhaka and Narayanganj.
Agartala conspiracy case:
- After two years of imprisonment by the army, in early 1968, the Pakistan government filed a case against Sheikh Mujib and 34 other Bengali military and CSP officers, which is well-known in the history as the Agartala conspiracy case.
- This case is called false and people from all walks of the country came down on the road to demand the liberation of all accused including Sheikh Mujib.
- In this situation, the trial of those accused, who were accused in the Dhaka Cantonment on June 19 of the same year, started with stringent security.
Agartala conspiracy case withdrawl and the release of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman:
- All the people, including Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, were released from the Agartala case on 22 February 1969.
- The case was withdrawn due to mass upsurge and everyone were given a reception as national heroes.
The title of Bangabandhu:
- On February 23, 1969, President of the Central Student Sangram Parishad Tofail Ahmed conferred the title of “Bangabandhu” on the Race Course ground of Awami League President Sheikh Mujibur Rahman for the Bengali nation.
The Mass Uprising of ‘69:
- During the trial, on January 5, 1969, the Central Student Crisis Council presented their eleven-point demand, in which all of the six points of Sheikh Mujib were involved in drafting.
- This mass movement is known as the mass uprising of ‘69. After the month-long protest and resistance movement, violation of Section 144, curfew, police firing, and several casualties, the movement forced the hand of the government.
- The then President Ayub Khan withdrew the suit after a roundtable meeting with political leaders. With this, all those accused including Sheikh Mujib were released.
- In 1969, during an all-party conference convened by Ayub Khan, Mujib called for accepting the demands of other political parties including his six-point and came out of the conference after it was rejected.
- On 5 December 1969, in a public meeting organized on the occasion of the death anniversary of Suhrawardy, Mujib declared that East Pakistan will now be called “Bangladesh”
Declaration of East Pakistan as Bangladesh:
- Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on 5 December 1969, on the death anniversary of Suhrawardy, said that the name of East Pakistan will be Bangladesh.
After the general election announcement of 1970, he campaigned for the election, based on the 6 point movement of the country.
7th March speech:
- On 7 March 1971 Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman gave a historic speech at the Ramna Race Course ground. Bangabandhu was scheduled to deliver the speech at 2 pm, but he arrived at 2:45 pm to deliver his speech. He urged the people of Bangladesh to jump in the war with whatever is in the hands of the people. He said, “The struggle for now, is the struggle for the liberation, the struggle for now, is the struggle for independence.” In this way, he inspiresd all Bangalees to join the war.
- On 26 March 1971, a group of commandos surrounded Bangabandhu’s Dhanmondi residence. They started firing. The operation of Bangabandhu’s residence was led by Colonel ZA Khan and company commander Major Belal.
- The commando took him to the cantonment at 1.30 am and went to the cantonment. At night, he was detained in Adamjee School in Cantonment.
- Three days later Bangabandhu was taken to the West Pakistan. He was kept in Mianwali prison in Punjab.
Declaration of Independence:
- On March 26, 1971, Bangabandhu declared Independence through telephone to Nurunnahar who was the wife of Chittagong Awami League leader Zahur Ahmed Chowdhury.
- To promote Bangabandhu’s message of independence, Chittagong Awami leader MA Hannan set up an independent Bangla Betar Center in Chittagong with the officers and staff of Chittagong Radio on March 26, in Kalurghat.
Release from prison:
- Indian President VP Giri and Prime Minister Indira Gandhi congratulated Bangabandhu at the Palam airport in Delhi on January 10, 1972.
- Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman took office as President of Bangladesh on January 10, 1972. On 11 January he was appointed the Prime Minister of Bangladesh.
Bangabandhu’s Development Plans:
ØOn March 26, 1972, under P.O. 16 order, all banks were nationalized and six banks were established.
Ø First Five-Year Plan: The Prime Minister formed the Planning Commission of Bangladesh on 21 January 1972, whose chairman was Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
Ø Education Policy 1974: July 26, 1972. Muhammad Kudrat-e-Khuda formed the 15-member Education Commission.
« Priority of the Commission:
- Ensuring the perfect reflection of Nationalization, Principles of the Fourth Edition in all areas of education.
- Use Bangla as the medium of education all over the country.
Ø Nationalizing the jobs of primary teachers: The government nationalized the primary education and increased the salaries of government jobs.
Ø University management law: The University Ordinance was annulled on February 18, 1973, by repealing the Kalakanoon of the University.
Ø Farkka dam and Ganges river water sharing agreement: The government of India completed the construction of the Farakka barrage in the Ganges River in 1975. The Ganges river water sharing treaty was signed between Bangladesh and India on 18 April 1975.
Ø Armed Force: Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman reflected his thoughts with the modernization of the armed forces. For the Armed Forces, he introduced the concept of command concepts.
Bangabandhu’s Joliot Curie Award for Peace:
- In October 1972, peace council meeting was held in Santiago, Chile, in the presence of 200 representatives of 140 countries, decision was taken to award the Joliot Curie Peace Prize to Bangabandhu.
Receiving membership of the UN and Bangabandhu’s speech:
Because of the personality and diplomacy of Bangabandhu, on 17 September, 1974, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the membership of Bangladesh as the 136th member of the UN.
- On 25 September 1974, Bangladesh’s Prime Minister Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman joined the United Nations General Assembly’s 29th session. He first addressed the United Nations in Bangla.
On 7 June 1975 Bangabandhu formed the Krishak Sramik Awami League. He formed 15 members of BAKSAL executive and a 115-member central committee.
- On 14 August 1975 Major Farooq and Major Rashid took the first Bengal lancer and the second field artillery fleet from Dhaka cantonment.
- Major Noor Chowdhury, Major Bazlul Huda and Major Mohiuddin reached at Bangabandhu’s residence at 5.15 am with a group of lancers. Pesh-Major Nur Chowdhury fired Bangabandhu with his stain gun. The bullet hit his right side and went out of the hole. His entire body became bulky in the shoots. The great leader of the Bengali nation breathed his last.
Those killed in the family of Bangabandhu on August 15, 1975:
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Sheikh Kamal – eldest son
Sheikh Jamal- second son
Sheikh Russell – youngest son
Sultana Kamal-Kamal’s wife
Rozi Jamal – Jamal’s wife
Abdur Rab Serniabat – Minister, brother-in-law
Sheikh Fazlul Haque Moni – nephew
Arju Moni – wife of Sheikh Moni
Nurunnessa Baby – daughter of Serniabat
Arif is the son of Serniabat
Col. Jamil Uddin Ahmed
Sukanta Babu – grandson of Serniabat
Shahid Serniabat – Abdur Rab’s nephew
Abu Naeem is the son of Rentu. Captain Sabur, the younger brother of owner of Barisal Opisoni.
The architect of Independent Bangladesh:
- The Bangalee nation was introduced under the regime of King Shashanka. But they could not succeed in this struggle. Because they were unable to be united in establishing an independent state.
- Struggle for struggle was followed by Shashanka from Palashi, Palashi till 1971. Our great leaders Abul Kashem Fazlul Huq, Husain Shahid Suhrawardy and Maulana Bhashani had played a historic role in the struggle for independence as a nation.
- Sher-e-Bangla Bengali brought the light of education to the people, spreading the homes of the people, spreading the national consciousness, reforming the land for the socio-economic emancipation. In 1940, he proposed the proposal of a sovereign state in East Pakistan for the establishment of an independent country in Lahore in 1940. Husain Shahid Suhrawardy demanded the independence of Bangladesh in 1947.
- Fazlul Haque, Hossain Shaheed Suhrawardy and Maulana Bhashani united the Bengali nation through election in 1954 on the basis of the 21 point movement. The Bengali language was recognized as the state language.
- The Awami League’s 6-point movement was essentially the demand for independence of the Bengali nation. In order to achieve the independence of Bengal, a group of Bengal boys formed the Liberation Force in the army. The Pakistani government filed a so-called Agartala conspiracy case against them.
- From 1947 to 1971, the events in then East Pakistan thus East Bengal, progressed in such a way that led to a fair consequence, and if it’s history is written, then the main protagonist of it all would clearly be Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
- Bangladesh is also proud of many poets, litterateurs and leaders. Rabindranath Tagore, Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das, Kazi Nazrul Islam, AK Fazlul Huq, Husain Shahid Suhrawardy and Maulana Bhashani played a prominent role in the nationalist movement of Bengal. But the country was born, due to the contribution of Bangabandhu. There is no comparison with him. So he is called the greatest Bengali of all time.